Inside Revolution· Psychology

What Is Self-Determination Theory?

youngsports 2022. 10. 3. 15:56

How Self-Determination Influences Motivation

By Kendra Cherry 


Self-determination refers to a person's ability to make choices and manage their own life. Being self-determined means that you feel in greater control, as opposed to being non-self-determined, which can leave you feeling that your life is controlled by others.

Self-determination is an important concept in psychology since it plays a role in psychological health and well-being. Promoting self-determination is also an emerging best practice when working with certain populations, such as individuals with intellectual disabilities.1

Self-determination theory seeks to explain how being self-determined impacts motivation—that people feel more motivated to take action when they think that what they do will have an effect on the outcome. Learn more about how this theory works, as well as what you can do to improve your self-determination skills.

What Is Self-Determination Theory?

Self-determination theory states that people are motivated to grow and change by three innate (and universal) psychological needs. The concept of intrinsic motivation, or engaging in activities for the inherent reward of the behavior itself, plays an important role in this theory.

Self-determination theory suggests that people can become self-determined when their needs for competence, connection, and autonomy are fulfilled.

Self-determination theory grew out of the work of psychologists Edward Deci and Richard Ryan, who first introduced their ideas in their 1985 book Self-Determination and Intrinsic Motivation in Human Behavior. They developed a theory of motivation that suggests people tend to be driven by a need to grow and gain fulfillment.

Assumptions of Self-Determination

Self-determination theory makes two key assumptions:

The need for growth drives behavior. The first assumption of self-determination theory is that people are actively directed toward growth. Gaining mastery over challenges and taking in new experiences are essential for developing a cohesive sense of self.

Autonomous motivation is important. While people are often motivated to act by external rewards such as money, prizes, and acclaim (known as extrinsic motivation), self-determination theory focuses primarily on internal sources of motivation such as a need to gain knowledge or independence (intrinsic motivation).

 Differences Between Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation

Components of Self-Determination

According to self-determination theory, people need to feel the following to achieve psychological growth:

  • Autonomy: People need to feel in control of their own behaviors and goals. This sense of being able to take direct action that will result in real change plays a major part in helping people feel self-determined.
  • Competence: People need to gain mastery of tasks and learn different skills. When people feel that they have the skills needed for success, they are more likely to take actions that will help them achieve their goals.
  • Connection or relatedness: People need to experience a sense of belonging and attachment to other people.


How Self-Determination Theory Works

It's important to realize that the psychological growth described by self-determination theory does not happen automatically. While people might be oriented toward such growth, it requires continual sustenance.

Ryan and Deci have suggested that the tendency to be either proactive or passive is largely influenced by the social conditions in which we are raised. Social support is key. Through our relationships and interactions with others, we can foster or thwart well-being and personal growth.

Other factors that also help or hinder the three elements needed for growth include:

  • Extrinsic motivators can sometimes lower self-determination. According to Deci, giving people extrinsic rewards for intrinsically motivated behavior can undermine autonomy. As the behavior becomes increasingly controlled by external rewards, people begin to feel less in control of their behavior and intrinsic motivation is diminished.
  • Positive feedback can boost self-determination. Deci also suggests that offering unexpected positive encouragement and feedback on a person's task performance can increase intrinsic motivation. This type of feedback helps people feel more competent, which is a key need for personal growth.

 How Overjustification Reduces Intrinsic Motivation

Example of Self-Determination

Imagine a person who fails to complete an important project at work. If this person is high in self-determination, they will admit their fault, believe that they can do something to fix the problem, and take action to correct the mistake.

If that same person was low in self-determination, they might instead look for other things that they can blame. They might make excuses, assign blame elsewhere, or refuse to admit their own role in not completing the project on time.

Most importantly, perhaps, is that the person low in self-determination won't feel motivated to fix the mistake. Instead, they might feel helpless to control the situation and believe that nothing that they do will have any real effect.

Self-Determined vs. Non-Self-Determined Behaviors

Self-Determined Behaviors

  • Motivated by intrinsic rewards
  • Driven by enjoyment, interest, or satisfaction
  • Feel in control

Non-Self-Determined Behaviors

  • Motivated by extrinsic rewards
  • Driven by obligation or responsibility
  • Feel a lack of control

Rather than thinking of motivation as being driven by either extrinsic or intrinsic rewards, it is often helpful to view it as a continuum between self-determined and non-self-determined behaviors.

  • On one end of the continuum are purely self-determined behaviors that tend to be intrinsically driven and done for the enjoyment of, interest in, and inherent satisfaction for the action itself.
  • On the other end are non-self-determined behaviors, which are performed only because they must be done. There is a complete lack of control on this extreme end of the scale.

If you are training to compete in a marathon, for example, you might be extrinsically motivated by a desire to gain approval from others. At the same time, you may also be intrinsically motivated by the satisfaction you gain from the activity itself. In most cases, behaviors tend to lie in the middle of the continuum.

There is also often a varying amount of external motivation, which can fuel the degree of internal motivation. People may engage in actions because they feel they have some level of personal control and the behaviors ultimately align with something that is important for their self-concept.

Most actions are not purely self-determined or non-self-determined. Instead, actions often rely on a certain degree of self-determination that may also be influenced by extrinsic motivations.

Impact of Self-Determination

The concept of self-determination has been applied to a wide variety of areas including education, work, parenting, exercise, and health. Research suggests that having high self-determination can foster success in many different domains of life.

In the Workplace

People with self-determination feel more satisfied at work while also playing a key role in that organization's success.  How can employers build self-determination in their workers?

  • By allowing team members to take an active role
  • Not overusing extrinsic rewards since this can undercut intrinsic motivation, a phenomenon known as the overjustification effect
  • Offering employees greater responsibilities
  • Offering support and encouragement
  • Providing employees with meaningful feedback

In Competition

In competitive settings, such as sports and athletics, fostering a sense of self-determination can motivate people to excel. Some suggest that it works, at least in part, by increasing a person's level of mental toughness.

Athletes who feel that they are capable of achieving their goals and overcoming challenges are often driven to perform better. Excelling allows them to gain a sense of competence and build mastery in skills that are enjoyable and important to them.

Researchers have also found that people with an internal sense of control are more likely to stick to a healthy diet and regular exercise regimen.

In Social Settings

Self-determination can also play an important role in social relationships. For instance, when people are new to an online group, if their needs for autonomy, relatedness, and competence (the three components of self-determination) are fulfilled, it impacts their social identity which, in turn, affects their participation behaviors.6

To forge close, affectionate relationships with others, thus potentially improving self-determination:

  • Seek positive relationships with people who will support you in the pursuit of your goals.
  • Offer support and feedback to people who are part of your social circle.

In School Settings

Self-determined students are more likely to feel motivated to achieve. They also tend to feel greater levels of competence and satisfaction. Educators can help students foster a sense of self-determination and intrinsic motivation by:

  • Providing unexpected positive feedback when students perform well to help improve their feelings of competence
  • Avoiding excessive external rewards for actions students already enjoy, which helps improve their internal motivation

Self-determination can play an important role in how people function in many different areas of their lives. Feeling in control and intrinsically motivated can help people feel more committed, passionate, interested, and satisfied with the things that they do.

Traits of Self-Determined People

If you are interested in strengthening your self-determination, it is helpful to think about what a highly self-determined individual might look like. People high in self-determination tend to:

  • Believe that they have control over their own lives. Self-determined people have an internal locus of control and feel that their behaviors will have an influence on outcomes. When confronted with challenges, they feel that they can overcome them through diligence, good choices, and hard work.
  • Have high self-motivation. Someone with high self-determination doesn't rely on external rewards or punishments to motivate them to take action. Instead, they engage in behaviors because they are motivated intrinsically. They have an internal desire to set goals and work toward them.
  • Base their actions on their own goals and behaviors. In other words, people with self-motivation intentionally engage in actions that they know will bring them closer to their goals.
  • Take responsibility for their behaviors. Highly self-determined people take credit for their success but they also accept the blame for their failures. They know that they are responsible for their actions and don't shift blame elsewhere.


How to Improve Your Self-Determination

Do you want to be more self-determined? There are a few steps you can take to improve your own self-determination skills.

Improve Your Self-Awareness

Self-awareness is associated with self-determination and can even help prepare you to make more purposeful decisions. Meditation, seeking regular feedback, and writing down your thoughts and feelings are all ways to improve self-awareness.

Engage in Self-Regulation

Developing a higher level of self-determination involves also working on your self-regulation skills. Strategies that can help you better regulate yourself include being more mindful of how you feel mentally and physically, along with practicing cognitive reframing to better regulate your emotional responses.

Find Social Support

Strong social relationships can foster motivation and well-being. Seek people who make you feel welcome and cared for. This may be a family member or friend, or it could be a member of your church, a counselor, or anyone else who provides a sense of support and belonging.

Gain Mastery

Becoming skilled in areas that are important to you can help build your sense of self-determination. Whether you have a strong interest in a hobby, sport, academic subject, or another area, learning as much as you can about it and improving your skills can help you feel more competent.

The more you learn and practice, the more skilled and self-determined you will likely feel.

A Word From Verywell

Self-determination theory can be helpful in understanding what might motivate your behaviors. Being self-determined, feeling like you have the autonomy and freedom to make choices that shape your destiny, is important for each person's well-being.

When you pursue things that are intrinsically motivated and aligned with your goals, you will feel happier and more capable of making good choices.


By Kendra Cherry
Kendra Cherry, MS, is an author and educational consultant focused on helping students learn about psychology.


Why We Do What We Do Summary

Thanks for exploring this SuperSummary Plot Summary of “Why We Do What We Do” by Edward L. Deci, Richard Flaste. A modern alternative to SparkNotes and CliffsNotes, SuperSummary offers high-quality study guides that feature detailed chapter summaries and analysis of major themes, characters, quotes, and essay topics.

Why We Do What We Do: Understanding Self-Motivation (1995), an educational self-help book by Edward L. Deci (with Richard Flaste), considers why we’re motivated to do the things we do, and how to foster someone’s sense of autonomy and commitment. The book is generally popular with readers of personal development books for its original insights and thought-provoking questions. Deci is the Professor of Psychology and Gowen Professor in Social Sciences at the University of Rochester. He is the co-founder of the self-determination theory explored in this book.

Why We Do What We Do asks a basic question—what is the best way to motivate someone to accomplish a task? Deci argues that, traditionally, we tell people that they must do things in order to get rewards, such as leisure time. They are only interested in the reward, and if the reward isn’t there, they won’t complete the task on their own initiative.

Deci considers, then, if motivating other people is really the best way to get things done. It may be better to encourage people to motivate themselves. This is where the self-determination theory, or SDT, comes into play. Self-determination means teaching people to become more autonomous. It means relying on internal motivators instead of external motivators to make us do things.

Deci gives an example from a controlled experiment. He asks two groups to complete visual puzzles. He offers one group money if they complete the task; he doesn’t offer the other group anything. When he leaves the room, the group working for money stops to take a break. The group working for fun, however, keeps going. This shows that one group was self-motivated. Deci suggests that internal motivation, then, is superior to external influences.

We may wonder why motivation is important. Deci attempts to answer this conundrum, explaining that intrinsically motivated people not only enjoy what they do, but they’re also motivated to find more creative solutions to problems, and they’re open to learning new things. Being intrinsically motivated is better for our mental health, because we feel more in control, and we understand why we’re doing what we’re doing. We don’t lose our sense of purpose when an external motivator or reward is taken away.

Deci enriches Why We Do What We Do using many other examples to support his position. He takes communist Romania as another example. In Romania, people can leave their workplace at any time to go and do what they feel like. However, they don’t have any choice as to what jobs they do. They’re not intrinsically motivated, because they’re stuck in jobs they didn’t choose.

Compare this to a capitalist economy where people work many hours to buy what they want. In these economies, people worry that, if they don’t work hard enough, they’ll lose their job, even if they have more freedom to find another. These people are just as trapped, and suffer as little intrinsic motivation, as their communist counterparts. Neither way of working is desirable.

Desi wonders, then, how the average person can be truly free. He accepts that there will always be some form of external motivator—whether it’s the need for money to live or a roof over our heads—but that we must find what motivates us personally. Understanding what passions drive us, and what makes us happy, allows us to feel more fulfilled at work and in life.

Deci considers that there is one interest we all have in common—the world at large. By fostering our curiosity, our interest in one another, and our talents, we can bring out the best in each other. We can help people feel more engaged in their environment, and less focused on external rewards that they don’t really care about. We each work more effectively when we’re driven, and we’re less effective when we’re pressured and forced into doing something for the activity’s sake.

Deci identifies steps we must take to drive ourselves. Most importantly, we must feel in control. Our actions must feel like our own, even if we are simply choosing to go along with external controls. Going along with something purely because someone tells us that we must is the opposite of controlling our own lives. Deci urges parents to recognize this when they are motivating their children to complete tasks.

Furthermore, we must get over our egos. Ego makes us do things to achieve external rewards, such as status and wealth. It doesn’t motivate us to do well when those external rewards are taken away—for example, if we’re fired. If we allow our worth to be determined by our external success, we will always be unmotivated and unhappy.

Essentially, Deci explains that people must feel more engaged in their own lives if they are to become more successful. Children must be taught to set their own limits and decide what makes them happy. They should be motivated to better themselves and develop passions. Teaching children to want to improve themselves for personal development’s sake, and their inner fulfillment is one of the most important lessons we can give them.



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